Project Management

Project management – discipline of planning, organizing, securing, managing, leading, and controlling resources to achieve specific goals. A project is a temporary endeavor with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and often constrained by funding or deliverables), undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring about beneficial change or added value. The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast with ongoing business operations.

Project Management Institute’s described a Project as “A temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product or service”.

Major component of project charter:

Major Components of Project Charter

Henry Gantt was known as father of planning and controlling project management techniques and used Gantt chart as a tool for project management.

Project management is a challenging process with many multifaceted responsibilities. There are many tools available to assist with accomplishing the tasks and executing the responsibilities.

Project Management Constraints: A project must be completed under three constraints.

  1. Scope – project size, goals and deliverables.
  2. Time – time frame available to complete the project.
  3. Cost (or Budget) – amount budgeted for the project.

Project management triangle

Project management comprises of following:

Skill: It is established that set of skill, expert knowledge, and expeProject Management Trianglerience are the need to reduce the level of risk in project management.

Tool: A suite of tools are used by project manager to get success such as document templets, register, planning software,
modelling software, audit checklist and review forms.

Processes: Various management techniques and processes are needed to monitor and control time, cost quality and scope on project.


Project life cycle with measurement points 

  1. Project Initiation: The business problem or opportunity is recognised and a business case is developed. All stakeholders come together to establish preliminary agreement around project scope, costs, and expected timelines.
  2. Project Planning – Project plans are established outlining activities, resource requirements, tasks, project deliverables, etc. A preliminary project schedule is conscripted.
  3. Project Execution: In this phase, customer requirements are gathered, a solution is agreed upon by all stakeholders and/or selection/procurement begins. While the actual project plan is being executed, a series of management processes are also underway to monitor and control project progress and deliverables and to ensure the project stays on track.
  4. Project Monitoring and Control: In this phase, frequently measuring and monitoring project progress and making sure that project objectives are on track and being met. Variances from the project plan are identified and corrective action is taken when necessary.
  5. Project Closure: During this phase, the project is delivered to the client. A post-implementation review is conducted to determine the level of success of the project and to highlight key lessons learned for future projects.

Project management by domain

  • Construction project management concepts
    • Construction – in the fields of architecture and civil engineering, is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of multitasking. Normally the job is managed by the project manager and supervised by the construction manager, design engineer, construction engineer or project architect.
    • Architectural engineering
    • Virtual Design and Construction – (VDC) is the use of integrated multi-disciplinary performance models of design-construction projects, including the Product (i.e., facilities), Work Processes and Organization of the design – construction – operation team in order to support explicit and public business objectives.
  • Software project management concepts
    • Software engineering – is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software.[4]
    • Software development
      • Agile software development – is a set of principles about how software should be developed based on a rapidly iterative agile way of working in contrast to many previous software development methodologies.[5]
    • Capability Maturity Model – (CMM) in software engineering is a model of the maturity of the capability of certain business processes. A maturity model can be described as a structured collection of elements that describe certain aspects of maturity in an organization, and aids in the definition and understanding of an organization’s processes.
    • Dynamic Systems Development Method – (DSDM) is a software development methodology originally based upon the Rapid Application Development methodology. DSDM is an iterative and incremental approach that emphasizes continuous user involvement.
    • Unified Process – The Unified process is a popular iterative and incremental software development process framework. The best-known and extensively documented refinement of the Unified Process is theRational Unified Process (RUP).

Types of projects

Project management approaches

What type of thing is project management?

Project management can be described as all of the following:

  • Management – in business and human organization activity is simply the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal.
    • Management process – is a process of planning and controlling the performance or execution of any type of activity.
  • Process – ongoing collection of activities, with inputs, outputs and the energy required to transform inputs to outputs.
  • Project – A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.

Project management procedures

  • Aggregate planning – is an operational activity which does an aggregate plan for the production process, in advance of 2 to 18 months, to give an idea to management as to what quantity of materials and other resources are to be procured and when, so that the total cost of operations of the organization is kept to the minimum over that period.
  • Allocation – is the assignment of available resources in an economic way.
  • Budgeting
    • Budget – generally refers to a list of all planned expenses and revenues.
    • Budgeted cost of work performed – (BCWP) measures the budgeted cost of work that has actually been performed, rather than the cost of work scheduled.
    • Budgeted cost of work scheduled – (BCWS) the approved budget that has been allocated to complete a scheduled task (or Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) component) during a specific time period.
  • Constructability – is a project management technique to review the construction processes from start to finish during pre-construction phrase. It will identify obstacles before a project is actually built to reduce or prevent error, delays, and cost overrun.
  • Cost engineering – is the area of engineering practice where engineering judgment and experience are used in the application of scientific principles and techniques to problems of cost estimating, cost control, business planning and management science, profitability analysis, project management, and planning and scheduling.”[8]
  • Critical path method – (CPM) is a mathematically based modeling technique for scheduling a set of project activities, used in project management.
  • Earned value management – (EVM) is a project management technique for measuring project progress in an objective manner, with a combination of measuring scope, schedule, and cost in a single integrated system.
    • Earned schedule – (ES) is an extension to earned value management (EVM), which renames two traditional measures, to indicate clearly they are in units of currency or quantity, not time.
  • Estimation in project management is the processes of making accurate estimates using the appropriate techniques.
  • Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) – is a network analysis technique that allows probabilistic treatment of both network logic and activity duration estimated.
  • HERMES is a Project Management Method developed by the Swiss Government, based on the German V-Modell. The first domain of application was software projects.
  • Kickoff meeting – is the first meeting with the project team and the client of the project.
  • Linear scheduling method – (LSM) is a graphical scheduling method focusing on continuous resource utilization in repetitive activities. It is believed that it originally adopted the idea of Line-Of-Balance method.
  • Program Management – is the process of managing multiple ongoing inter-dependent projects. An example would be that of designing, manufacturing and providing support infrastructure for an automobile manufacturer.
  • Project accounting – Is the practice of creating financial reports specifically designed to track the financial progress of projects, which can then be used by managers to aid project management.
  • Project Cost Management A method of managing a project in real-time from the estimating stage to project control; through the use of technology cost, schedule and productivity is monitored.
  • Project planning – is part of project management, which relates to the use of schedules such as Gantt charts to plan and subsequently report progress within the project environment.
  • Task is part of a set of actions which accomplish a job, problem or assignment.

What is the major function of Primavera software?how many levels in primavera?

The major function of Primavera is to support your planning process.
Primavera is a powerful planning tool use in all over the world to plan projects mainly in terms of time, resources and cost. As far as levels of planning is concerned different planners, specialist and scholars give different levels of planning.
I mean no of levels.
But i personally feel that it has five levels.
1. Scope Planning—–Here we define the major milestones or deliverable s of the project.
2. Break up of Scope—This is nothing but making of WBS (work break down structure).
here you make different work groups or packages , which you have to do for achieving your milestones.
3. Insertion of activities—here you insert activities in there work packages.
4- Resource loading— on the fourth level you load your activities with resources which are required to complete all those activities which you have mentioned earlier.
5- Cost loading—– in the last you put cost or more better to say expected or budgeted cost needed to complete all the activities you have define in your project.
here you can define both the cost direct and indirect costs of your project.